Graduate medical education is the second phase of the continuum of education as students prepare for a career as a physician. The first phase, undergraduate medical education, is completed after 4 years in a college of medicine. Upon graduation and receiving the M.D. degree, most “students” enter graduate medical education of the residency programs. The third phase, continuing medical education, spans the rest of the medical career reflecting the commitment to life-long learning inherent in the medical profession.